˹ѧ. ͧմ¹᷹§ͤҾٴ ҹ˹ѧ ¹
˹ѧ, ѡɳѡ ¹˹ѧ,
˹ѧҪ, ͡, оѹ; ͤ
¹繵; () ͡ ¹;.
˹ѧԹҧ . ˹ѧҤѭШҵǫ觷ҧҪâͧ
˹ͧͧ͡ȹ ͧ㹡
Թҧ㹴Թᴹҧ.
˹ѧͺԤʹ () Ԥʹ.
˹ѧ; . 觾Ф繵ʹͻЪҪ
á͡ѹ; () 觾ժͨ˹ǡѹ ͡
ਵҨ͡ҴѺ ա˹
բͤͧѹ.
˹ѧѺͧ÷ӻª () . ˹ѧͤѺͧҡѡҹ
˹ҷš·Թ ͡Է㹷Թ ʴ
һª㹷Թ.
˹ѧҪ . ͡÷ѡҹҪ ˹ѧͷ
ҧǹҪ ˹ѧͷǹҪ件֧˹§ҹ
ǹҪ ˹ѧͷ˹§ҹ蹫ǹҪ
ؤ¹͡Ҷ֧ǹҪ ͡÷ҧҪèѴӢ
ѡҹ ͡÷ҧҪèѴӢ鹵 º
͢ͺѧѺ.
˹ѧ¹ . ˹ѧҪ÷բͤ͹ѹ 件֧˹§ҹ
ҧ Ǣͧ ʵǾѭ ˹Ţ¹˹ѧ,
һҡ ¹ ˹ѧͷѧѺѭ¹
ѧѺѭѺҺͶͻԺѵ.
˹ѧѭ () . ͵ŧҧؤ ½
ҨСзӡͧ鹡зӡҧҧ˹觷Ң
ѡɳѡ.
˹. , ˹, ˹. () . ˹ع.
˹Ѻ. ҡ ˹˹Ѻ, §ѧҧ֧ͧ˹ǨҴͻ
֧˹ѧʵ꡴ѧ˹Ѻ.
˹ . ǹ٧ҡҡǾ. . ǹ٧ҡҡǾ; 蹷ֺ, ҡ,
çѺ ҧ.
˹ҵ . ҡ, ҡ (), ѹդҪ
ʾ˹ҵҡѹ͹, ҧա ˹˹ҵ ˹
繤 Фͧդ仴˹˹ҵҡһá.
˹ . Ѻ, Ѵ, ا෾ ջЪҡ˹ҡ.
˹ . Թٴѹҡ, (Թ), բ˹
ҨеѴ, ҧա ˹˹ҵ ˹ҵ
Թ˹˹ҵѰŨԡպҧҧ.
˹˹ҵ ˹ҵ ˹.
˹ һСͺ¤蹷դԧѧѺ͹͹
Դ˹.
˹. ǹͧе˹ҼҡŧҨҧ; աͧ·çѺ
ѧ, ҹͧ˹觷çѺµҢͧʹҹ
༪ԭ˹ҡѺµҢͧ ˹ҩѹ ֧ѧ
; ǹͧҧ ˹Ң ˹˹ѧ
˹һ˹ѧ; ͧاºúҧҧ
˹Ңǵ; ҹ˹ ͧѵẹ ҧ
д ˹ҡд ˹ҫͧ, ҹͧͧշ֧˹ѧ
˹ҡͧ, ҹ˹ ͧ١йҫ ҹ; ǹ
ҧͧ蹡дҹ ͼ׹ 繵; ¼ҺҧԴ
Ǵ, ҹͧҷǴªѴ; ͢ء
֧˹, Ĵ ˹ҽ ˹ҷ¹; »¶֧
ء˹˹; õѡ ˹
˹; ѡɳ͡ҹǹҹͧ蹡д ˹ѧ
˹. . Ѵ ҷԵ˹ Ѻ˹; çѺ
ѧ (ҷѧ֧) ѹ˹ ͹˹ ˹, ç
Ѻҧѧ ¡ ҧ˹.
˹ҡЩա . ͧҹҴоǷֹ֡ٴ ǹѺҵŻ֡
ҡѹ˹ ͺ¤ѹ¹ͺ ˹Ң
˹ҡЩա ˹˹ҡЩա.
˹ҡдҹ . ѡɳ§ѹ˹价ҧǡѹ
١Թ˹ҡдҹ. . 鹷Һҹ駷躹˧
Ǥ.
˹ҡд١ . ٻ˹ҷաд١ѹ٧.
˹ҡҹ . ˹ҷҺ ҡᴴҡ˹ҡҹ.
˹ҡ . ˹ҡ 繤ԡ ˹ҡ ѹ.
˹ҡҡ . ͧѧ˹ҷͺҧǹ.
˹ҡ . õآ.
˹ . ˹͹֡ԴҴͷüԴҴ
硵˹Ͷ١ѺҷӤԴ.
˹ . ѡѹҹҹ鹵
˹ ١˹, ˹ .
˹ . ͧҡبԧ 硤˹, ¡ҡ
˹ء ҡ˹.
˹Ң ˹, ˹.
˹Ң֧֧, ˹Ҷ֧֧ . ˹ҵҷٴ, ˹ҵҹҡ.
˹Ң . ǹ˹ҢͧҹѺ⤹Ҷ֧.
˹Ңǵѧ . ˹ҫ繻 ѡԴҡմ, ˹ʹ
.
˹Ң֧Ң֧ . ˹ҫʴøҧҡ.
˹Ң鹹 . ˹Ңͧе ѡдٹšһá 觤
ҳ͡ѹҤҧӺحҡе˹ѡ
Т鹹.
˹ . ˹´ͧ͢, ˹ҵ֧ .
˹ . ˹ʹ Ǵ Ҥ (¼Ǥ
ʹᴧ).
˹§ . ǻШ§.
˹ . ˹ʴҡøѴ ø˹;
˹ҫʴҡ纻Ǵҡж١պ繵, »
¤ ١պͺѧѺ˹ѡ.
˹ . ǹ˹Ңͧ ŧ件֧, .
˹Ҥ . ˹«駪ǹ Ǵ Ҥ ''(˭ԧǤ
ʹᴧ).
˹Ҥ . ˹ʴҡø˹Ңͧ.
˹ҧ, ˹ҧ, ˹, ˹˹ҧ, ˹Һ, ˹˧ԡ, ˹˧ԡ
˹ҧ . ˹ʴҡø ҧ 繵.
˹ҧ͡ . ˹Ҽҡҧ蹧͡仡һá.
˹ҧ ˹ ˹.
˹ . ǹͧ˹ҵçҧ ѡ¶١˹.
˹Ҩ . ˹Ŵ, ˹ҫմ, ѡ¹˹Ҩ
١ٵ˹.
˹Ҩ . ͧ͹ԴҹʡѴѧ Ѻѹ
ᴴ ٻ, ; (Ե) ¡ٻմҹ
˹ҡѹ ˹Ҩ.
˹Ҩ״ . ˹ҫմ.
˹ . ҧ˹ʹԷ ҡԹ.
˹͹ . ҧ˹ʹԷСдҡͧҡ١ѺԴ
繵.
˹ҩҡ () . ʴҡԴ ҹ˹ҩҡͧ
繹ѡáԨժ§ ԧҢʾԴ, çѺ
ѧҡ. . ;ĵԡԴ, çѺ
ѧҡ.
˹ҩҹ, ˹ҷ . ੾ооѡ;ҪԹ
ԹѴ˹ҩҹ ʴ˹ҷ.
˹ . ˹ʴ֡ԹԹ ʹ´յ
˵ءó .
˹µ, ˹ҵ . ҡ÷ҧ˹繻á
赹зӤԴ ͺҧ駡зӤԴਵ
Ժ¢ͧҧ˹µ.
˹⩹ [-ڹ] (ҡ) . ˹ѧӤѭͧҧҪ
ʴԷԹ.
˹Ҫ . ҡ÷֡Ѻ¢˹Фø ͺ
֡˹Ҫҷ١Шҹ.
˹Ҫ蹵Һҹ . ˹ԡҹ.
˹Ҫ͡ . ԧշء, ˹Ҫ͡ .
˹Դ . ˹ҷ¢. . ҡ÷͵˹ʴ
Ҥ繵 ҹö¹ѹ˭˹Դ.
˹ҫա . ˹Ҵҹҧ (繵٢ҧ).
˹ҫմ . ˹ʴʹʹ͹ Ͷ١
ѺҷӼԴ繵.
˹ҫ㨤 () . ˹Ҵ٫ չ¤⡧.
˹ . ҡ÷ҧ˹ͷͧ ˹.
˹ . ˹ʴԴʴʹ͹ҡ
繵.
˹Ҵҹ, ˹ҷ, ˹˹ . ˹Ŵ駷è
, »¤ դ֡觷.
˹Ҵ . ˹ͧФء͵ͧӧҹ
ҧ繵.
˹ҴӤ´ . ˹ͧеͧ´
Ѻҹ ͵ͧԴҧ˹ѡ, ˹ҴӤ´ .
˹Ҵ˹ᴧ . ҡ÷Ҩ§ѹ觷Ҫ
ա˹ §ѹ˹Ҵ˹ᴧ.
˹ . ѡѹҹҹ鹵 ҹ
褹˹, ˹ .
˹ᴧ . ˹仴ʹҴФдҡø
繵.
˹ҵѡ . ӷ¡ҴҧͧоطٻẺ觢ѴҸ
ѴҡشҢҧ˹觶֧աҧ˹ Ѵҵ
оطٻͧ˹ҵѡ лиҹʶ ˹ҵѡ
͡ ; »¶֧Թ¾ѹҧç˹Ңͧ
蹡þѹ ˹ҵѡ
˹ҵ . ͧҧ觷Ҵ Сз ѺԹѺǵѧʹ.
˹ҵ . ҡ÷ʴ˹ҵҵ (), ˹Դ .
˹ҵ . ѡɳ˹ҵҷҷҧ¼˭ԧ, »¤
, Ҵ, , (ѡٴԧ´).
˹ҵ . ˹ 硤˹ҵ͹; õȪ§
ѡ觢ѹ㹵ҧȡ˹ҵѺ
ͧ.
˹ҵҢ֧ѧ . ˹ҷʴҨԧҨѧ ٹҡ.
˹ҵҵ, ˹ҵ . ˹ҵ鹵繵 ˹
˹ҵҵ.
˹ҵҧ . ͧҺҹ͹繵鹷ԴԴ ѺѺʧ
ҧҡȶ ҧѺ͡.
˹ҵ . ˹͹դ֡ 繤˹ҵ.
. ˹ҷ š˹ҵ.
˹ҵ֧ . ˹´ͧ͢, ˹ ; ˹ᴧ
.
˹ҵ . ˹ʴҡ ø˹ҵ
.
˹ . ǻШ.
˹Ҷʹ . ˹ʴԴѧ͵繵, ˹ʹ
˹ʹ .
˹Ҷѧ . ˹ҹçԴԴ¡дҹ ʹ§
͹仵ҧ.
˹ҷͧ . ǹ˹Ңͧͧ 鹻訹֧dz鹢 մ
ͧѹعѢҷ˹ҷͧѧҡ١عѢѴ; »¶֧ͧ
ѹҡ ˭ԧ´ ˹ҷͧ.
˹ҷѺ . §ͧշ֧˹ѧ Ӿǡ⾹ͧ͡ᢡ
պѭѵẺἹѺջШӷӹͧŧҧ ͡
Ѵǹл¤ͧŧ ˹ҷѺú.
˹ҷ . ҡ÷˹ҧؤ
͡.
˹ҷ . ԨеͧҴ¤ѺԴͺ.
˹ҷ, ˹ҩҹ . ੾ооѡ;ҪԹ
ʴ˹ҷ ԹѴ˹ҩҹ.
˹ҹ . ͢ҧ˹ Ӵ ӵŷ
ٻͺ.
˹ҹ . ˹Ҽشͧ繹繹, ҳ ˭ԧ
˹ҹ ʴ ص㹤˭ԧ.
˹ҹǤǢǴ . ҡ÷˹蹢Ǵʴø
纻Ǵ繵.
˹ () . ˹ҵʴ ˴.
˹Һ͡حѺ . ˹Һ駵֧ ҼԴѧ ˹
͡حѺ.
˹Һѹ . (ҷ ʶ 繵).
˹Һҧ . դ֡ǵ觷.
˹Һҹ . ˹ʴҡô ˹Һҹͺ .
˹Һٴ . ˹ʴҡ˹ ҷ˹Һٴ
ͧʺ, ˹Һٴ˹ ˹˹Һٴ
.
˹ . ˹ҷʴҡüԴѧ 繴 纻Ǵ
繵.
˹һҨǴ . ˹ҧǻҨǴ.
˹һ . ҡ÷˹դѡӤѭ.
˹һѴ . 蹷յŢѭѡɳʴͻҳ繵
˹һѴԡ ˹һѴԷ ˹һѴҵѴ.
˹һ¹ . ҡ÷ҧ˹ʹԷ дҡж١ѺԴ
繵, ˹͹ .
˹ . ҡ÷˹ , ҧ.
˹Դ . ˹Ժͧʪǹ, ˹ҧ .
˹Ҽ . ҹҷԹ駪ѹ.
˹Ҽҡ . ǹͧͧ˹˹ͤǢ.
˹Ҽ . ˹ҵѻѡɳ´ҡ.
˹ʹ, ˹ʹ . ˹ʹ. . ˹ʴԴѧ
͵繵, ˹Ҷʹ .
˹Ҿҷ . ¡ŧŧ㹡ʴҡ
͹Ǣͧ⢹Ф繵 Ѻѭԭ෾
ͺþҨ 㹾Ը;Ըŵҧ
Դ 㹡Թҧ 㹡Թ
ѺѡԹ ѺԹ Ҹء 㹡Ը
ҧ ԭ ѭԭ෾ѡԷ ŧ˹Ҿҷ.
. ǡѺŧ˹Ҿҷ ˹Ҿҷ ͡˹Ҿҷ.
˹Ҿҷŧ [-ŧ] . ŧ˹Ҿҷ͡ŧ仨ҡ
ŧҷͧԴҨкŧŧ
ŧҧҴԹ ¶֧ ŧ ŧ١͹仵Ҵ ¶֧
ŧ ŧ ¶֧ ŧ.
˹ . ҷشȾ Ǵ˹.
˹ʹ . ˹ҫ繻 ѡԴҡմ, ˹Ңǵѧ
.
˹ . ˹Ŵʴ ͷ˹մ
͵.
˹ . ͹ͤ蹡þѹ
繵 ͨ٧餹ŧŧ蹡þѹ,
»¡ҡԹѡɳФ¤֧蹹.
˹ҹ . ˹ʹ¤¨ʺҤ.
˹״ . ҡ÷ʵ; »¶֧ҨҴʵ
觷÷.
˹آ . ǹͧҤ÷͡ҷҧ˹.
˹Ѻᢡ . ˹ҵҷ¤¡Ѻͧõ͹Ѻ
Ҩ繻á繺ҧ͡ʡ.
˹ . ֡дҡ͢.
˹ . ԸդԴŢա¡; ͧԧԴ˹ դѹ
ҧ ԧ١˹.
˹ . ҡ ҧȹ.
˹ . ˹դҡӺҡէҹҡ¨
зá͹ѧ繵.
˹ . ˹.
˹Ѻᢡ . ˹ҵ繻Ш.
˹, ˹ . Ẻ˹ٻç
¡ٹ˹÷ 蹵çҧѴȾҪҤЪ
ѭͷ, ˹Ң ¡.
˹Դ . ҡ÷ʴ˹ҵҵ ()
š˹Դ,˹ҵ .
˹ʹ . ͺǧһªԸպѧѺ
˹˹ʹ, ˹Ե .
˹͡ . ˹ҢͧѴ駨Թ.
˹ . ͧپٻ Ҵ´Թ ¡ ͧ
˹; ͧѺاѧٻ¡ٹӴ
ٹ й ¡ ͧ˹ ͧ
ͧ¡ٹ.
˹ . ͧ¢չ蹡 Ӵ·ͧͧ
ͧᴧ繵鹷ٷ 纵Դçҧ
СѺ蹷ͧͧͷͧᴧ, ¡, ¡
ѧͺٻ蹹 ѧ˹; ǴԹ
蹺ҧ .
˹ҧ . ˹Ժͧʪǹ, ˹Դ .
˹Ŵ . ˹ʴ.
˹˹Ңҹ () . ѹա˹觡ѧ
ø˵ءóԡĵ繵.
˹ . ˹ʴҡþظ͵ 繵
˹ж١ѺҷӤԴ.
˹ . ˹Ҵҹҧ (繵 ҧ٢ҧ).
˹˧ . ҡ÷˹˧ Ҷ١˹˧;
¶֧ҡ÷١͹ѺҨ˹ 㨨
Թ Һ͡˹ҡѧҢա µͧ
˹˧¡Ѻ; Դ仨ҡҴѧҡ Ҥͺ
Է ͻСȼ ˹˧¡Ѻ.
˹ѡ . ˹ҫѹ١ѡ.
˹ . ˹ҷ觵֧, »¤ ö
ʵҧ˹ǡѺ.
˹ˡ (ҡ) . ҡ÷ͧѺѺ¢˹ҧ
Դѧҧҡж١١͹Ѻҧ§繵.
˹˧ [-ڧ] . ˹ʴͨѭ.
˹ . ˹Фء蹼Դѧ.
˹˭ . 㨡ҧ¿ԹǴ
ͺ˹˭⵷ Թ.
˹ . ѡѹ ѡͧ˹.
˹ѧ͡ () . ˹ҷ繴 ѺѧԹ
ҷҧ, ˹оѺ Ѻѧ .
˹͡ . ǹ¹ͧ͡͡, ͧ˭ԧ, ͡ .
˹͹ . ͧع¡بԧ ˭ԧҡ
ѧ˹͹, ¡ҡ˹ѧ ҡ˹͹.
˹Ѵ . ˹ҵç, ˹, ˹ҵçẹ, (ٻҴ ٻ
­).
˹Թ˹Ҿ . ӹҨ, ˭, ˹Թ
˹Ҿ 駹.
˹ҡ[ڹҡ] . ͡. (.).
˹ҧ(-Ѿ) . ǹ, ; , .
˹Ҵ. Դ Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. ǧ Compositae
˭բ 蹩ع ͡ѹҼա.
˹ҹ(-Ѿ) . ¡֡ҡԡ ˹ҹ ˹ҹ.
˹ҹ ˹.
˹ҹ ˹.
˹ҹ д١.
˹ҹ ͪҧº.
˹ . ǹ ͡͡ҡ͡觢ͧҧԴ繵
˹ ˹ط.
˹ . ѡ˹ѧ͢; ǹѡ 溹ѧ
; зѡɳǤ˹Ѻִǹ
繵.
˹͡͡ () . ˵ءó֡͹
ᷧ͡ʹ.
˹͡˹ () . ͺԸա÷ҹͧǡѹ.
˹ () . ջҳǾԺҵ
ͧ͹, ѡҤѺ йǡ§á֧.
˹ . ·šҺʡ Murex ǧ Muricidae ͡˹
ͺ Դ M. trapa.
˹ô. 秪Դ Acacia pennata Willd. ǧ Leguminosae
˹ ͡ǹ.
˹(-Ѿ) . 鹡кͧྪ. ( кͧྪ ).
˹¹͹ ǡ .
˹(-Ѿ) . 鹤. ( ).
˹ᴧ. () 秪Դ Maytenus marcanii Ding Hou ǧ
Celastraceae . () Դ Carissa carandas L. ǧ
Apocynaceae ͡բ ʹ͡ժ բ ءᴧ
Թ, й ¡.
˹. Դ Carissa cochinchinensis Pierre ǧ Apocynaceae
˹, ¡.
˹ا, ˹ͺ, ˹ ا.
˹ѧ Թ.
˹˭.
˹. , ״ҧ, ¨ҡǾѹ, ¨ҡѡ, ѡҤѺ
˹.
˹˹ . ҡͷ繵.
˹˹ [ڹڹ] . ҧŧ繵,
˹˹ .
˹. 繨Ѵ, ҡ÷֡繨Ѵ.
˹ . зҹ, ͡, ç, .
˹Ǵ͡ . ҷ鹧͡͡ ҳ͹ ҡ
Ҹ Ӥҧŧ ˹Ǵ͡ǧ͡
͡. (. и).
˹ ͹ . ͤ蹵, ҡä¨
͹˹, »¤ դ͹㨡Ҩж١
ŧͶ١˹繵, ͹ ˹ кѴ͹кѴ˹
.
˹зҹ . ˹о; ֡͡㨷֡
蹤ҴǨ繵.
˹ѹѧ . ֡Ҵ, ѹѧ .
˹˹ . ˹ҡ֡Ҥ˹.
˹ . ֡.
˹ ˹.
˹ . ءªԴʡ Anthurium ǧ Araceae ͡
дѺյҧ .
˹. ҡ͡Ѻͧ ˹ҭ.
˹ . , ҡ, Թ˹ ˹.
˹º. ͼŢͧ鹪Դ Canarium pimela Leenh. ǧ Burseraceae
ءǧ Ҵͧ. (.).
˹. , ա, ˹ ˹շء; ա§
˹ ˹ç¹.
˹͹Ҿ () . ˹ըҡդʹ͹㹷
դʧآ.
˹ͻШ () . ˹ѹҧ˹ǵͧѹ
աҧ˹.
˹˹ . ź龺˹.
˹. Թ˹觵Դҧеͧա˹, ˹Թ ; ()
Եѹҧؤŵ ¢ 觽˹¡ ˹
ԷԷкѧѺؤա˹觫¡ ١˹ зҡ
鹡зҡҧҧ˹. (. obligation); »¶֧
÷еͧͺ᷹حس.
˹͹׹ѹ () . ˹ЧѺ˵طԷФ
ѺԴ˹鹵ؤŤǡѹ.
˹Թ . Թ˹觵Դҧеͧա˹.
˹٭ . ˹˹շҧѺ˹ҡ١˹.
˹պ. պͺպç蹴¢ͧ繧蹧͵
繵.
˹. ŧ·ҹͧ˹.
˹֡[ڹ֡] . ˹ֺ.
˹. ŢáͧӹǹѺ; ӹǹ, , ,
˹㹴ǧ. . ; ͡, , ͹ ¡
˹.
˹ͧ . 褹.
˹ֺ. ѡɳТͧ觢ͧ˹蹴 ¡ ˹˹ֺ.
˹״. ҡâͧ觢ͧ˹Ǩ֧͡ ¡ ˹˹״,
»¶֧˹ҡ. () . ¡ԹҾ˹״
͡š Թ˹״. (. magma).
˹[й] . ҧ. (., .).
˹ع. ͧ٧ ˹ع, ѹ٧ ӷ˹ع;
˹عͺԧعѰ, ˹عѾ;
˹ͧ ˹ع͹ ˹عѡ ˹ع͹. .
Ѿ˹ع.
˹عͧ . Ҵ ͧѾ֡˹عͧ
.
˹عѧ . ѹѧ; ʹѺʹعҧѧ.
˹غ, ˹غ . ѡɳҡõʹ, ҡ÷㹡֡鹡͹ ;
ҡ÷ԴǴ֧͡§ѧ蹹.
˹غ˹Ѻ, ˹غ˹Ѻ , ˹غ ˹Ѻ . ҡ÷觡ѹͧ͢
繵, ҡ÷觡ѹʹ.
˹. ·ؾ Ѻ - . . ¡
ѧ ѧ˹.
˹ . ˹ط.
˹ҡԹᵧҵ () . ˹طҡ
.
˹ . ·.
˹ . ˹.
˹˹ [-] () . ѧ, ѧ˹.
˹˭ . ·¡ҧ.
˹. , .
˹ . ѵ§١¹ʡǧ Muridae տѹ
仵ҹ͹㹶蹸ҵ ªԴ ˹پء˭
(Bandicota indica) ˹ٷͧ (Rattus rattus) ҧԴ繾
ä. . (੾оóҧҧվѹͧ͢
ҧҧԴ) Һ˹ ᵧ˹ ˹.
˹ٵѧ () . ·հҹ´觧ҹѺ˭ԧ
, ѧ .
˹ٵԴ () . ѭ, ҷҧ͡.
˹ (ҡ) þɷ ٴѺ˭, þɷ
˭¡, Ѻ¡ դ㹷ҧ繴
˹ᴧ ˹ٹ.
˹ټ . ѵ§١¹ǧ Soricidae ٻҧ˹
ҡ չǵչҧ ҧ
١͡Ѵ شŧԹͧ
ͧѺѹҹ ªԴ ˹ټչ (Crocidura
fuliginosa) ˹ټպҹ (C. murina) ˹ټը (C. etrusca).
. 觾ط .
. 繵鹤;ѹ˹觷§ҧǹ
Ҽ⾸.
, ͤ . ͤ੾ᢹ ᢹ
ҧͺѧʹѡǵѴҴ.
.¡ԸҢͧԡҧ˹»Դ
ҧ.
ͧ . ¡ԸҢͧԡҧ˹§
ռѴ͡.
. ء Թ Ź , ź˹
˹, ͼ; ¡Ըշ
ҧҧء¡ ѹ.
. ѧ价ҧ Ѻҹ.
. ͹ á, դءҡ
͡.
(-ѡ) . ҡк͡. ( к͡ ).
. ѭ, Թ ,
¡. . Թ .
, , , . ش
㹡÷ͧѺءա, 鹡 鹡
鹡 ; (ҡ) .
, ٴ, (ҡ) . Թ, Թ,
¡þѹ.
ѹ ͡§ʴ´ͼԴѧ繵.
ѹ . شѹ.
§ . 硡Թ§.
. ҷ˹ ͹ࢵҾ
һСǴ.
, () . ҹҨʹ,
ķ, .
. .
. Ҵ, ͧ, 觡´ͼҴ;
յ˹, ҧ, դоĵ.
, . ͻдҵ Ҷ١⡧
.
() . ѭ, ҧ, , 鹵 .
ٴ (ҡ) . Թ, Թ,
.
. ˹ҧ, ѭ, Ҩͺ
ҧ; ҡ÷֡ѧǪ 觵԰ҹԹ
ˡ , ٻ .
ح . ӹҨʹ, ӹҨ ʹҺ ;
(ҡ) .
е . շҧ, ˹ҧ, ҧ.
͡ . , ͺὧ, ͸Ժ¨
͡ Ҿóͧҧ´͡.
. ö ҹ駹ҷҧ
ᾷоѡҤ騹 ªԵ
, ö, 鹽 .
ا, ا . ͹쨹ا;
ҡ÷ԴԴѧӾҧ Ҿا,
鹾ا .
Ҥ . ŷԹ, ͧ.
Ҥդ . դͧҧ (ѡ˭ԧ).
. ˹ҵͧ ӹҨ.
ٻ . ҡ÷֡ѧǪ, .
. , Ҵ .
ʹҺ . ӹҨ.
, . ش㹡÷ͧѺءա,
鹡 鹡
鹡 ; (ҡ) .
ʵ . ʵ, դ֡, ź.
ا . ͹쨹ا; ҡ÷
ԴԴѧӾҧ Ҿا,
鹾ا .
ѧ . դѧ, ѧ .
. , Ҵ, .
. 㨼١ѹ; դѧ 㹪Ե.
µҡ . ʹդѧ .
´ . ŧ.
ӹҨ, ʹҺ . ӹҨʹ, ح .
. ѡɳ ͤ () տ .
ͧ . ͧ, ʺ, ԡҹ, ˹ҵ
ͧ Եͧ, ͧ .
. շء͹.
ǡ[ǡ] . ͧٻҧ ͧдѺ͡ѹᴴ
ѹ繵.
ǡ . ǡѹᴴԴ˹ ç ջաͺ ç
Ҵҩ͡繵 ͷҴҹ.
ǡһ . ǡԴ˹ҹҧ´ ٻç
٧ ˭ԧ մ͡չº 繢ͧµ
Ѫŷ .
ǡѹ͡ . (ҡ) ǡ.
ǡ . ǡõǨ͢Ҫþ͹繵鹷
кѧ˹.
ǡ . ѺѺ.
ǡç͵ . ǡٻç͵ҧǡ
ŷШҷ繵.
(ٻҾ ǡç͵)
ǡ . ǡѺͧѹŴѹ
Ѻз͹繵, (ҡ) ǡѹ͡.
ǡ˹պ . ͧẺ˹ Ӵ¼ѡҴ ٻç
«ͧҧ.
ǡ . ͺٵ͹.
ǡ١е . ͧẺ˹ Ҵ¼ѡҴ
յҧ ٻçк͡ ٻ׹ҵԴͺǡ
Ѻٷ ҧ.
(ٻҾ ǡ١е)
ǡ . ǹ繴ͧ͡.
ǡ . ǡѺ͵Ǩͻͧѹѹ
ҡظ繵.
Ǵ[Ǵ] . Сͺ Ǵ˹ѧԷʵ
Сͺ˹ѧ ˹ѧͿԡ 繵; ѧŢͧ
Ǩ 繵 ըӹǹԹ ˹¡ ѧѺ
Ǵ ͷ ¡ Ǵ, 繷ú͵Ǩеͧ
µ µǨ µǨ, 繷
ͷҡȨеͧ͵ ; ¡觷Ǵ
ءǡѹ.
ǹ(-ѡ) . .
. , ҹҭ, ͧ ͹Ǵ; Ǩѡä Ϳѹ
.
͢ѭ . ԸշҢѭ, ͷӢѭ ¡; դҧʵ
˹㹡èѺҧ, ¡.
ͤ (ҡ) . Ѻ͹حҵҵҧҧͧ
ö, ¤ ¡.
. դӹҭ㹡᤹, ҹ¡ ҧ᤹.
ͧ . դӹҭ㹡èѺ§͹ʴ.
ͧٵЧ . ӹҭ㹡ҧ§ҪվҨ
١ҡѴФҷ, »¶֧դ
Ҩ;Ҵ·Фͧ.
. դҧʵ˹㹡èѺҧ,
͢ѭ ¡.
ʹ . ҹ⪤е.
͵ . ˭ԧҪվҤʹἹҳ.
ͷӢѭ . ԸշӢѭ, ͢ѭ ¡.
͹Ǵ . դӹҭ㹡ùǴ¨ҡ纻Ǵ
¢.
͹ . ػó㹡ùǴ蹹; ¡ǻԧ͡
ʹ ͹.
͹ѹ . ҹҭ㹡âҧѹ.
ͼ . ͡ѹӹҨ§ Ǻ ҹлҺ繵.
;Ѵ⵹ [-ڹ] . ѡäҧ㹷ҧ.
(ҡ) . դ㹡ѡä.
. ҹҭ㹡âѺͧẺҹ.
ʹ . ͡ѹԪҤ餹ѡѹͪѧѹ.
(ҡ) þɷ ¡硴¤繴 ͹
͹, þɷ ¡˭¤繵,
(), 仿ѧ͹, ҧա ͹
͹ ͹ ͹.
. ͻҹҨ״Դ Anabas testudineus ǧ Anabantidae ҵǻ
ẹҧ ͧ ʹҧҧ ҡشͧǡҧ
Դ硹 ״˴ ѹç ͺ繨ѡ
˹ִ蹡Ѻ˹ѧФʹҵ д١
Դ˧͡ѡ˹ ᶡִͪѹ͹仺
ͺպҧ ҵФպմҤ ǹҢҴըҧ
º駾Ҵҵ 觹᷺ء
ҺĴٽ 繸ҵԡ¶
Ẻ˹ ѧʴ繤ö㹡
͹ա¢Ҵ֧ ૹ,
¡, ҹ¡ .
͵ . ͻҹҨ״Դ Helostoma temminckii ǧ Anabantidae
ҵẹҧСҧҡһ ҡ״˴ չһҡ
Ѻ ֧¡ѹ Ҩٺ ҵФպչҵ͹
ǹ ࢵ Ҵ֧ ૹ, 㺵 յ
¡.
. ¡١ͤ ١.
. Ҫл˹ ٻçҧ Ѻͧҹҧҧ,
¡觷ӡ ʹԹ ͷͧͧ , ¡
觷èء ͢ ͹, ¡ѵػʧ
¡ ͵ ͹.
͡д . ᡧҴ˭ҡҧ Ӵ´Թ բմ
ͺ.
. ͵ Ѻ͹
ѹ㺾Ѻ֧ Һͧе˭ԧáʹص ͤ
µ֧繵.
. ͢ҹԴ˹ Ӵ¡з ӵ Ҵԧ
ءѡ ¡ ᡧ.
͢ҧ (-Ѿ, ҹ) . ззӴ硢ҧ.
͵ . ҪдԹٻҧͷçѺҵ
⵹, ¡ǡٻç͵ҧǡŷ
Шҷ繵 ǡç͵.
(ٻҾ ͵)
͵ . ͢ҹԴ˹ Ӵٻç
ŢҴʹӵ յҧ .
ͷй . ʹԹҴ˭誹Դ˹ բմͺѺ
ҵ⵹ 繵, (ҡ) ͤй.
͹ . ТҴ˭ ҷԴ͹ʹçѹ
٧عͧѡ繵; ػóͧͧ¹ҧԴ Ѻ
èعк¤͹ͧͧ¹.
ŧ, ŧ . ػó俿Ѻŧç͹俿
٧͵ŧ Դá¡ ŧ Դѧ¡
ŧŧ.
. ҪЪԴ˹ Ӵ ٻçª
ԧ çҧաк͡٧ҨҡѺҹԴ
ҡսһԴ Ѻ ᡧ״ 繵, ǹ
¡.
˹ . ʹԹҴѺӡ繵.
ǹ .
. ʹԹͺմѺѺ.
͡[͡] . ͧӢҴҡͧµ Դҡ
蹵Ǣͧ͹ ҡ. . ҧ, 繽
͡.
ᡧҧ ᡧԧ.
ᡧԧ. ҪԴ Nepenthes ampullaria Jack ǧ Nepenthaceae ͺ
㹻ҾطҧҤ ¹ٻսһԴ ѡѺ
ŧ, ͢ᡧԧ ᡧҧ ¡.
͢ᡧԧ ᡧԧ.
ͧ[ͧ] . , , ͧͧ ͧԹͧ, ͧ,
, ˹ͧ.
ͧ . , ͧ; Ѵͧѹ.
ͧ . , ԡҹ.
ͧ . ͧ, ʺ, ԡҹ, ͧ .
ͧҧ . ͧդͧ.
ͧ. ҹ˹Ҫͼ¾ ( ͧ ͧ); ¡Ң駪Դ˹
Ǵ 繵 ͧ.
ͪҧº. ͻҹҨ״Դ Pristolepis fasciatus ǧ Nandidae
ٻҧ» ẹҧСҧ ҧ
¤¾Ҵҧ Ҵ֧ ૹ, ҧº
еѺ СѺ˹ҹ ա ¡.
.
͹[͹] . ͧѺ˹ع˹ع觵ҧ 繵, ¡
ٻç ͹ҹ ͹оҺ ͹˹԰, ¡ѵ
ʧ¡ ͹˹ع ͹˹ع ͹˹ع
ҧö, ¡ѵطӡ ͹ ͹԰; ͧѺ
ѴԹ׹ҡͧ.
͹ҹ . ͹˹ҵѴٻ¢ҹ ԧ.
͹ҧ . ͹ѡɳСԹ觡 ҧҧ
仵͹.
͹. 鹪Դ Morus alba L. ǧ Moraceae Ѻ§
ءԹ.
͹ͧ. () ǧѹ˹觢ͧԴ Mangifera indica L. () ͷ¹
ѹ˹.
͹ .
͹ . Դ Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. ǧ Rutaceae
.
ͺ[ͺ] . ҷŧͺ͹ᢹǹҧҺѺ,
ͺŧҡä¤֧蹹; (ҡ) ç, ء,
١ͺ ͺ.
ͺ () . ͺշҧ.
ͺҺ . ͺǹŧͷйѺ.
ͺҺҺ () . Ѵ׹, ´.
. ˭ԧѭҢͧҿ ͧ , ص
˭ԧͧͧ, () ҿ ͧ
ͧɶ١ʹҡôѡ, ҹ˹ҪҪԡ
ҪԹաŪ鹼˭駪˭ԧյ˹, ҹ˹Ҫ˭ԧѭ
պôѡҢͧҤسҪѹ㹵СźعҤ
ҹ ʹ, ҹ˹ҹؤŷ繼
Сŷ駪˭ԧ Ҿäʹ ¸ ¡
عҤ.
. ҹ˹ҹʸԴ㹾ͧҪ鹾кǧ.
ѹ . ᷹ǼٴѺҹ·ѡ͡ѹ
Ѻ˭ԧٴѺҹ, þɷ .
Ҫǧ . ҹ˹Ҫͺصâͧ.
ǧ . ҹ˹ҪͺصâͧҪǧ.
. ˭ԧѭ¢ͧҹ, ҹ˹ҹ
.
[] . ͧѺ; ¡觷ѡɳ繽·½ѡ
⾴ ¢⾴. (-Ѿ) ¡˹Ǵ »ҡ
¤ҧ ѡ .
(-Ѿ) . ¡ͤ͡ ᢹ鹼͡ʹ ѡչԹ
ʹ , ¹ .
ѡ. , 纷; ѡºͺ (ҡѴ)
һҡѴѡ, ʹ .
ѡ . 觤ҧҡ Ҫͺѡҹ
. . 觤ҧҡ ͼǡѡ
ѡ仫ѡ·.
Ѵ . ŧҴªԴѹѺ Siphonaptera ǻҳ
ջա ҵẹҧ բ§ǢҧҵǺdzͧ
лͧ ͡硡ҷͧ ⴴ觻ҡ繪Դ
ٴ ٴʹѵԹ Ѵ (Pulexirritans)
Ѵ (Ctenocephalides canis) Ѵ˹ (Xenopsyllacheopsis)
ǧ Pulicidae.
Ѵ . һ, ͷѺͷغ繵.
ѹ . ´Ժ繵鹷ءѺѹ ѹҧ ѺѴ.
ѹ . 鹪Դ Cordia cochinchinensis Pierre ǧ Ehretiaceae
͡һ.
ѹ . öպص; Դª ҹ仡ѹ.
. ѹ, ͻоĵԺ ҧ繻á, 蹷
úҹ .
. ͺ觢ͧ˭ԧʴҨ觧ҹ.
. () ÷ªͺ͹ѾԹѹ繢ͧ
˭ԧѡҹҨʡѺ˭ԧ Ǣͧ
Է˭ԧ; ¡ͧͺ ͧ, 繷ͧ
¡ ͧ, ǹ ¡ ǹ, 鹡ѹ
¡ .
. ѧ˹, ֡ҧ٢ҧ; (ҡ) ǹ֡繴, (ѡ),
硤ǹ , ѹ .
Ѻ. ѺСͺҷ ҧѺ
Ѻ Ѻ ԺѺ, Ѻ .
Ѻ . ҡâͧҡغ͡ҧ, Ѻ .
. ѵ§١¹ªԴʡǧ Canidae ҵբ
չ˹ չѧ ͹
ȢͧǼաд١ ѧѵ
(Cuon alpinus) §ѵҹ Դ Canis familiaris.
ҡҧ . ҷҢͧ, »ӹǹº
ºѧѴ խҵԾͧ ҡ͹Ҷ
ҵҧҡҧ.
ҡѴ () . ͵ͺ͹ǧ˹.
ҡѴҡѴͺ () . Ŵŧ仵͵ͻҡͤӡѺ
ͤѡӡ.
Ң¡ҧ () . ͺ¡ͧ, Ǵ.
Ң͹ () . ѧ¨ äҤ (
֧蹴¤ٶ١´).
Ҩ͡ () . ִҧشԵշҧ͡
ӹǹ ͹Ҩ͡.
Ҩ駨͡ . ҪԴ Canis aureus ǧ Canidae ҵ
ҵ բѡɳФҹҺdz ҡ ٵ
ç ҧ繾ǧ пѹҡ ҧѹѡ͹
çԹ ͡ҡԹҡҧ׹ Թѵ.
Ҷ١͹ () . դʹ͹ ǹ 觾ҹ
ҷ觵ҧ º͹ҷ١͹ǡ ͧ§ѧ觾ҹ
仴¤纻Ǵù.
. ҪԴ Cuon alpinus ǧ Canidae չӵᴧ
͹ӵ ҧդ繾ǧ ҷֺ ͡ҡԹ
٧״оź ѵ蹡Թ ҧ ٻ ѵ .
ҧ˭ () . ǧ˹觷赹ͧԹ
餹蹡Թ, ǧҧ .
ҺҾšᪧ () . Ҵͧ·
.
һ . ªԴǧ Canidae ն蹡ԴͺǷء
Ҥͧš ҵյҧ ҵ һᴧ ѹ
Ǥҡ ´ ǹ˭ҡԹ繽٧ Թѵ Դ
Canis vulpes 㹷ջԡ˹, Դ Chrysocyon brachyurus
㹷ջԡ, Դ Canis lupus 㹷ջû, Դ
Fennecus zerda 㹷ջͿԡ, Ҩ駨͡ (Canis aureus)
(Cuon alpinus) 㹷ջ.
ͺѴ () . ͺ͡駼Ѻѧ.
() . Ѻѧӻª
¡§ ͷӻª 繹¡ʹ
´ͧŧɢѺ繵 º͹
ѵ Ңͧ§
ա.
ͧҧ () . ӵҴ· .
(ҡ) . ¤.
͡ () . ¡ҡ÷͡˭ԧ㹷ӹͧ
繷蹷ըԧ.
ǧҧ () . ǧͧ赹Է, ѹҤ
觷赹ªª.
ǧҧ () . ǧ˹觷赹ͧԹ
餹蹡Թ, ҧ˭ .
() . 繷ѧ¨ͧ蹨öҡѺ
, ѡͤ.
ҧǹ () . üԴҴѺѺ
ǹ蹷ҵ¡ͧáзҹҴ ҧ.
繢͡ () . ҡ觷繻ªӹ
آҭ赹 شö ӹ
ª赹.
㺵ͧ () . ͺٴʴ Ҩԧ.
Ѵ () . §Ǵ
͵ͺ.
(-ѡ) . ҪѺѡӢ鹨ҡ Ӵ¡Һ繵,
¡. (. timba).
(ҡ) . Թ ͧբͧԹҡ «;
º ͼҢǢͧ ͧ; ѡ, ͹,
Ң һٹ.
(; ͹) . , ҡ. . ԧ.
ҡ . ¡ªԴʡǧ Palmae ੾ЪԴ
Areca catechu L. ʽҴ ǡԹѺٹ ¡
Թҡ ͡˹ѧ, ŷѧ¡ ҡԺ, ŷѴ
¡ ҡʧ, ҡҹҧ ҡ ѡɳФ
¡ ҡ, Ѵ͡Թҹ ¡
ҡѺ.
ҡ͡ . ҡʧ͡ҡᴴʹԷ
ҡҧ㹨С ֧͢ҧ͡Թ,
ҡ ¡.
ҡ, ҡ˹ҡ . ҡ˹Ҩǹ.
ҡ . ҡʧ͡ҵ͡ ա ǹ
ҡᴴ駨͡͹ش͡ ''Թҹ .
ҡ . ͻԴ Ptychosperma macarthurii Nichols.
ǧ Palmae ҹ.
ҡѹ ҧ.
ҡء . ҡԺʴ¹ҧҡ¹ Ǩ֧
͡繪鹺ҧ ҡᴴ.
ҡ¹ . ҡԺʴҵ͡繫ա ¹
ԹѺٷ»ٹ ͵ҡԹҹ .
ҡ . ҡԺʴ͡ ա ٻ¡պ
ҫ¢ҧ繪ٻҧ ҡᴴ.
ҡԺ . ҡѧ.
ҡᴧ . ͻԴ Cyrtostachys renda Blume ǧ Palmae
ҺСҹᴧ.
ҡ . ҡͨҡ÷ҡ ҡ˹
繪硪鹹ѹ ҡᴴ.
ҡ . ҡԺʴ١蹡ҧ
ҡᴴ, ҡ ҡ˹ ¡.
ҡ . ͧҧ˹ Ҩҡäҧ ѡ
ҹ ǻاաʵҧ Ǩ״蹤ҧ.
ҡ . ҡʧ͡ҡᴴʹԷ
ҡҧ㹨С ֧͢ҧ͡
Թ, ҡ͡ ¡.
ҡѺ . ҡ͡Թҹ .
ҡԧ . ͻԴ Areca triandra Roxb. ǧ Palmae.
ҡʧ . ҡѴ.
ҡѴ [ҡѴ] . ҡ ٨պ Ѵ繪ش
Ѻ. (. Ҷҵ).
ҡء . ҡѴ ͡ᴧ ͼҨ
ҡ. . ¡ᴧҧ͡ҡء ҡء.
ҡ˹, ҡ˹ҽҴ . ҡҧ ͼʴ
ҡ ͡͹ӵᴧ 鹹 ˹ҡҧ
ѹ ҡ ʽҴ.
ҡ˹ . ҡԺʴ١蹡
ҧ ҡᴴ, ҡ ҡ ¡.
ҡ˹ҹ, ҡ˹͹ . ҡ͹ ͼʴ
ͧմͺ բ çҧҡ
͹ Ҵ.
ҡ . ҡԴҡùҡء͡èŧ
֡ҳ ͡ ҴӾͪǻԴҡԴԴ
騹͡ Թ.
ҡ . ҡ駷繼 ѺͧȺҧҧ
ԹǺѺҡоٷ»ٹ Ѻ蹻ҡ.
ҡͧ . ͻԴ Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Wendl.
ǧ Palmae Һͧ ١дѺ.
ҡ . ҡҡԹҹ .
ҡ . ҡԴҡùҡء͡ǹ͡͡ è
ŧ Ҵͷ Դ 騹͡
Թ.
ҡ . ҡҹҧ ҡ ѡɳФ.
ҡ . ҡ §ѡ͹ Т.
ҡ . ¡觢ͧ˹١ ҡ ҡ ҡء;
() ѡɳ¡ͧ١ ҡ ʧԺҡ
Ժ.
ҡ . 蹢ͧ紡Ǵ١¹ Ը
Сԡҵҧ .
ҡ (-ҹ, Ѿ) . ١ѳ, ¡.
ҡ¡ . 蹪Դ˹ ҡԹдҹ
ѵ ѹҧдҹҡء.
ҡء . 蹪Դ˹ ҡٻЪ͵ҧѹ
ع ⤹ Թдҹѵ
ѹ¡ дҹҡء.
ҡ . 蹪Դ˹ ҡԹдҹ
ѵ ѹ͹дҹҡء к
Ѻѹء Թҡҷ§.
ҡǧ(-Ѿ) . 鹡ҨѴ. ( ҨѴ ).
ҡ(-ҹ) . ;ǧ, . ( ;ǧ
).
ҡѹ(-Ѿ, ҹ) . 鹾ط. ( ط).
ҡҧ ().
ҡҡ. Դ Cordyline fruticosa (L.) Goeppert ǧ Agavaceae
, ѹ᤺¡ ҡ, ѹ㺡ҧ¡ ҡ.
ҹء ѺҪѳԵʶҹ ..